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要增產更要環保 新材料讓農田地膜也能化身肥料

2022-11-03 11:21:56來源:化工儀器網 閱讀量:13543

導讀:材料技術研究院的研究團隊開發了一種特殊的生物降解膜,這種薄膜以聚己二酸/對苯二甲酸丁二醇酯(PBAT)、聚乳酸(PLA)為原料,將生物質秸稈、酒糟、無機填料等作為填充物,應用化學改性、物理共混和工藝調控等技術制作而成。能夠在替代傳統地膜實現保溫、保水、保土、保費等功能的同時,兼顧自降解這一重要優勢。
  地膜是農業種植中經常使用的一種工具,主要用于提高土壤溫度,保持土壤水分,提高肥效,維持土壤結構,防止害蟲侵襲作物和某些微生物引起的病害等,能夠起到保護、促進農作物生長的作用。
 
  據統計,薄薄的一層地膜可以用于糧、棉、油、菜、瓜果、煙、糖、藥、麻、茶、林等40多種農作物上,并且能夠使作物的產量提升三至五成,同時操作簡單,因此深受農民的歡迎。
 
  但與此同時,地膜也有一個非常嚴重的問題——塑料污染。由于大部分地膜使用的是PE薄膜,只要成分是聚乙烯,因此作物收獲后,塑料薄膜會殘留在土壤中,難以降解,對土壤造成污染。而對于大部分農民群體來說,想要正確并且有效地回收廢棄的地膜并不容易。原本用于保濕、保溫、防雜草等作用的地膜,反而成為了土壤板結的“罪魁禍首”,地膜也陷入了“用與不用”“管與不管”的矛盾之中。
 
  但這種情況在近兩年出現了轉機。材料技術研究院的研究團隊開發了一種特殊的生物降解膜,這種薄膜以聚己二酸/對苯二甲酸丁二醇酯(PBAT)、聚乳酸(PLA)為原料,將生物質秸稈、酒糟、無機填料等作為填充物,應用化學改性、物理共混和工藝調控等技術制作而成。能夠在替代傳統地膜實現保溫、保水、保土、保費等功能的同時,兼顧自降解這一重要優勢。并且,降解過程中還會釋放生物質成分,提升土壤肥力,為下一輪種植做準備。值得一提的是,這新技術已經在貴州等地農村投入使用,并且成果可觀,受到了村民的肯定。
 
  不過關于生物降解膜的環保價值,目前也存在一些爭議,有研究表示,即便使用生物降解膜,在降解過程中通用會對土壤造成負面影響。因此有觀點認為農業地膜本身作為農業輔助工具,如果孩子依賴材料本身的降解能力,對于農業的長期發展并不友好。換言之,在使用降解材料的同時,也應該加強對土壤的檢測監測力度,并且建立完善的地膜使用和回收制度,從一開始就將使用、治理與長期管理聯系起來,從根本上保持土壤環境的長期健康狀態。
 
  不過總體上來說,科技在環保這個領域的發展前景始終是向著利好推進的,我們要給予技術發展的時間與認可。與此同時,邊治理邊發展的基本方針不能偏移,我們也要利用現代檢測技術,在監管中推進技術的應用與發展,確保環境的同時,穩定農業的發展。
 
  原標題:要增產更要環保 新材料讓農田地膜也能化身肥料

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