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電路板發展新趨勢,紙質電路板巧破回收難題

2022-10-14 15:19:53來源:智能制造網 閱讀量:13475

導讀:隨著電子產品更新換代的速度加快,廢舊電路板的數量日益增多,如何實現資源化回收逐漸成為行業的一大難題。
  電路板別稱印刷電路板或PCB,在電子設備中有著廣泛的應用。2016-2021年,全球PCB市場規模呈現波動上升趨勢。2019年全球市場規模同比下降1.3%;2020年后全球印制電路板市場回暖,市場規模從2020年的約650億美元上升至2021年超過800億美元的水平,同比上升23%左右。
 
  隨著電子產品更新換代的速度加快,廢舊電路板的數量日益增多,如何實現資源化回收逐漸成為行業的一大難題。
 
  火法冶金、濕法冶金和物理法是目前幾種主要的回收方式,火法冶金利用高溫從礦石中提取金屬或其化合物的冶金過程。此過程沒有水溶液參加,故又稱為干法冶金;濕法冶金是利用某種溶劑,借助化學反應即包括氧化、還原、中和、水解及絡合等反應,對原料中的金屬進行提取和分離的冶金過程?;鸱ê蜐穹ㄒ苯鹛幚磉^程中產生的廢水、廢渣、有毒煙氣易造成嚴重的二次污染;物理法采用破碎、篩分、分選等物理過程富集分離金屬和非金屬,對環境影響較小,在目前的資源化回收中占據了主導地位。
 
  當前的電路板回收側重于金屬回收,對非金屬部分涉及較少,為實現資源回收效益最大化,近年來有機廢棄物熱解技術以其較低的污染排放和較高的能源回收率得到越來越多的應用。采用熱解技術處理廢線路板,不僅能回收線路板中的金屬,同時也能實現樹脂、玻璃纖維等非金屬成分的資源化。
 
  除了熱解技術,行業人士還從源頭出發,開發出紙質電路板。紐約州立大學賓漢姆頓分校團隊設計了一種基于紙張的放大器類型電路,其中包含電阻器,電容器和晶體管。在 Seokheun Choi 教授的領導下,紐約州立大學賓漢姆頓分校的一個團隊首先在一張過濾紙上打印出蠟質通道的圖案。然后將該紙在烤箱中烘烤,使蠟融化并浸入底層紙中 —— 但只在涂有蠟的地方。
 
  接下來,研究人員在紙上涂上導電和半導電的油墨。這些墨水只浸入紙張上尚未被蠟浸透的區域,形成電路。然后在這些電路上絲網印刷銀基油墨和其它導電金屬部件,然后在電路上涂抹凝膠基電解質。
 
  上述操作將能打造一個廉價但功能齊全的放大器類型的電路板,配有電阻器、電容器和一個晶體管,其又薄又柔軟,就像紙一樣,而且在點火時能夠迅速徹底地燒成灰燼。
 
  從目前發展來看,3D打印技術也有望助力印刷電路板行業發展。增材制造工藝可以通過逐層打印基板來構建3D電路,實現短時間內快速制作原型,且不需要最小構建量。與傳統生產方法相比,3D打印電路板的制造速度更快,用途更廣泛,并且可以在生產更復雜的電路的同時顯著節省成本。
 
  當下,電動汽車發展勢頭迅猛,對電路板的散熱提出了更高的要求。未來電路板在設計環節就應當處理好發熱問題。
 
  原標題:電路板發展新趨勢,紙質電路板巧破回收難題

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